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POWDERPOST BEETLE 

Powderpost beetles can be found in dead as well as dried and cured lumber. Damage occurs to many wood products such as rafters, joists, flooring, moulding, panelling, crating, furniture, antiques, tool handles, gun stocks, fishing poles and baskets. Sometimes homeowners hear rasping or ticking in the wood at night, notice a blistering appearance on the wood, see powdery frass piled below holes in the wood, find numerous round or oval exit holes at the wood surface, and even collect powderpost beetles around windows or lights. Mistakes are sometimes made determining if the infestation is active or non-active.

 

IDENTIFICATION

Powderpost beetle is a term used to describe several species of wood-boring insects. Adult Lyctids are flattened, slender, reddish-brown to black, varying from 0.7 to 3-mm long. The basal abdominal segment is long, and the antenna bears a club of only two segments. The head is visible from above. Mature larvae are C-shaped, slightly hairy with three pairs of spine-like legs, and yellowish-white with a brown head. The frass is fine flour or talc-like and loosely packed in tunnels. Large quantities often fall out at exit holes and cracks.

Adult Anobiids have slender, cylindrical bodies, are reddish-brown to nearly black and range from 1.5 to 3-mm long. In most species, the head is bent downward. The widest point of the thorax is slightly forward of the base, tapering backward and appearing as a rough, diamond-shaped outline. Larvae are C-shaped and nearly white except for a dark head. The frass is fine to coarse, pellet-shaped, usually a gritty quality and packed loosely in tunnels. There also is a small amount of frass around the exit holes.

Adult Bostrichids, 0.7 to 9-mm long, are cylindrical in most species, dark brown or black, with a roughened thorax. Antennae bear a club of three distinct segments. The head is usually not visible when viewed from above. Larvae are C-shaped; the body segments immediately behind the head capsule are much wider than the body segments at the rear. The frass is fine to coarse, tightly packed and tends to stick together.

LIFE CYCLE & HABITS

Lyctids attack only large-pored hardwoods such as oak, ash, hickory and mahogany. They attack “seasoned hardwood” and sapwood timbers found in woodwork molding, window and door frames, plywood, flooring, structural wood, furniture, tool handles and firewood. Pine and soft woods are not normally attacked. Adult beetles can emerge from wood stored in the home and infest structural wood or furniture. Lyctids rarely infest wood older than five years. Infestations usually result from wood that contained eggs or larvae when placed in the home. The wood could have been improperly dried or stored. Adult exit holes are round and 0.7 to 1.5-mm in diameter. Larvae cause the damage.

Anobiids may attack both hardwoods and softwoods, which means that infestations may be found in all the same places as Lyctid beetles as well as in structural timbers (beams, sills, joists, studs, subflooring, etc.). Maple, beech, popular and pine are especially susceptible to attack. Anobiids prefer to infest wood which is damp; therefore, infestations usually begin in moist, poorly-ventilated areas such as crawl spaces, basements, garages and utility sheds. Under favourable conditions of moisture and temperature, infestations may spread upwards into walls and upper levels of the structure, including furniture. Infestations may occur as a result of using infested lumber, or from beetles flying in from outdoors or being carried in on firewood. Infestations develop slowly, but wood can be reinfested year after year. Anobiids are called deathwatch beetles because in the past superstitious people believed the ticking one species makes foretold impending death in the household. Adult beetles make the sound during the mating season by tapping their heads on a hard surface. They attack seasoned softwood, hardwood, sapwood and heartwood found in woodwork, flooring, structural wood, furniture, tool handles and sometimes firewood. Exit holes are round and 1.5 and 3-mm in diameter.

Bostrichids are more abundant in the tropics. The bamboo powderpost beetle is found in baskets, picture frames, furniture and other imported bamboo material. These insects attack unseasoned and seasoned softwood, hardwood and sapwood, and are often found in dying trees or recently felled logs as well as seasoned lumber and wood products. Adults rarely reinfest wood. Adult exit holes are round and 2.3 to 7-mm in diameter. Both larvae and adults cause the damage.

Adult females lay eggs on or in the pores of bare, unfinished wood. Eggs hatch into tiny larvae that tunnel through the wood. Adults emerge one to five years later, usually April-July through holes cut to the wood surface by the larvae. Adults are short lived, active at night and may return to the same wood or go elsewhere, lay eggs and start a new life cycle. It is the damage that homeowners are more likely to see.

The length of the life cycle for Lyctids is three months to one year, for Anobiids one to three years and for Bostrichids about one year. Some wood-boring beetles complete the life cycle in a few months, while others live in wood 30 years before emerging.

DETECTING INFESTATIONS

The key to avoiding serious problems from powderpost beetles is early detection. Homeowners are much more likely to see damage than the beetles themselves. Since tunnelling and development of the larvae takes place entirely below the wood surface, the only signs of infestation are the emergence holes made by the adults and the powder-like frass sifting from the holes.

LYCTID OR ANOBIID BEETLES

Knowing how to differentiate Lyctid from Anobiid beetle damage is more than academic since Anobiids have a broader range of woods that they can potentially infest. Both Lyctid and Anobiids chew small, circular emergence holes in the surface of wood. Holes made by Lyctid beetles are about the diameter of a pinhead whereas exit holes made by Anobiids are slightly larger. One way to differentiate holes of the two species is to insert a “click-type” (refillable) ballpoint pen into the exit hole; only the tip of the ball will fit through a Lyctid beetle emergence holes. If the hole was made by an Anobiid, the tip of the pen will enter part way up the angled face of the point.

Another way to differentiate powderpost beetles is from the consistency of the powder (frass) that sifts out of the exit holes. Lyctid frass is extremely fine and feels like talc when rubbed between the fingers. Anobiid frass is also powder-like, but feels gritty.

ACTIVE INFESTATION

Infestations sometimes die out on their own accord. Therefore, it is important to be able to determine whether the infestation is active or inactive. Active infestations will usually have powder the colour of fresh-cut wood sifting from the exit holes. In contrast to old, abandoned holes, new holes will not have taken on the weathered appearance of the surrounding wood. Powder streaming from recently opened holes may accumulate in small piles beneath the exit holes. If these piles of powder are covered with a film of dust or debris, the damage is old. Careful observation may be required to distinguish new powder from frass that has been dislodged from old larval galleries by vibrations.

One final means of confirming that an infestation is active is to mark or seal any existing exit holes. Use crayon or tape over the holes to see if more holes appear. Sweep up all powder, and recheck the wood for new holes and powder at a later date. Since most emergence occurs from April-July, it might be worthwhile to wait until the following spring to determine if new holes and fresh powder are present. This is especially true when attempting to make a determination during the fall or winter months.

CONTROL MEASURES

Homeowners should know that there are various options for control. Selecting which is best depends on a number of factors including the severity of infestation, area being attacked, potential for reinfestation and treatment expense the customer is willing to bear. POWDERPOST BEETLES DAMAGE WOOD SLOWLY; thus, homeowners should not feel as though they must act immediately in order to preserve the structural integrity of their home. A “wait and see” approach is often desirable, especially when there is still doubt as to whether the infestation is active.

PREVENTION

Most powderpost beetles are introduced into homes in lumber or finished wood products (e.g., furniture, paneling or flooring). Lumber which has been improperly stored or dried should not be used, particularly if beetle exit holes are present. Many of the most serious infestations arise from clients who used old lumber from a barn or woodpile behind their house to panel a room or build an addition.

Powderpost beetles will only lay their eggs on bare, unfinished wood. Wood which is painted, varnished, waxed or similarly sealed is generally safe from attack provided no unfinished surfaces are exposed. Bare wood can be protected from attack by painting or finishing exposed surfaces. Beetles emerging from finished articles such as furniture were usually in the wood before the finish was applied. (Note: beetles emerging from finished wood can, however, reinfest by laying eggs in their own exit holes; sealing the holes prevents this possibility).

MOISTURE CONTROL

Powderpost beetles, especially Anobiids, have specific moisture requirements for survival. Since wood moisture levels below 13 percent (during spring and summer) are generally unsuitable for anobiid development/reinfestation, it’s advisable to install a moisture barrier in the crawl space of infested buildings. Covering the soil with four to six mil polyethylene reduces movement of moisture into the substructure and reduces the threat of an infestation spreading upwards into walls and upper portions of the building. Most beetles do not develop in wood with a moisture content below 10 to 15 percent.

Another way to lower moisture content in damp crawl spaces is to increase ventilation. This can be accomplished by installing foundation vents (0.09 square metres of vent area per 13 square metres of crawl space). Moisture meters, used by some pest control operators, are useful tools for predicting the potential reinfestation in wood.

WOOD REPLACEMENT

If the infestation appears to be localised (e.g., only a few holes in a board or sheet of paneling), simply replacing the board or sheet of paneling may solve the problem. If additional holes begin to appear in adjacent areas, additional action can then be taken.

KILN DRIED LUMBER

For new construction, use kiln-dried lumber (dried a minimum of eight hours at 54 to 60 degrees C and 80 percent relative humidity). Also, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) salts with trade names such as Wolmanized is an excellent wood preservative for wood in soil contact. The life of CCA treated wood is 40 years or more. This product is not available for homeowner application to wood since pressure application is essential. Treated wood has a slightly green cast and is often sold for use as landscape timbers and for fencing and deck construction.

Compounds available under trade names of Cuprinol are sold for homeowner application to wood. Penetration on wood surfaces is only about 3-mm and protection is much shorter than CCA treated wood.

INSECTICIDE TREATMENT

A number of insecticides are labeled for surface treatment of bare, exposed wood. Spraying or brushing these materials onto infested wood creates a barrier that kills adult beetles as they chew out of wood, and newly-hatched larvae attempting to bore into wood. Homeowners may apply amorphous silica gel (Drione, Tri-Die) or borates (Bora-Care, Shell-Guard, Guardian). Labeled Restricted-Use Pesticides include chlorpyrifos (Dursban, Equity, Tenure), cyfluthrin (Tempo), cypermethrin (Demon TC), methyl bromide, permethrin (Dragnet, Flee), silica gel-pyrethrins (Tri-Die PT 230), and sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane). Formulations containing “borate” are especially effective against powderpost beetles in that they penetrate and kill beetles within the wood, as well as those entering or exiting the wood surface. Killing larvae within their tunnels is advantageous, especially where there is concern about marring the wood surface with additional emergence holes.

For borates to penetrate wood, the surface must be unfinished. Therefore, joists, sills, rafters, subflooring, studs, decking and siding are all excellent candidates for treatment. Although borates will not penetrate paint or varnish, they will penetrate wood surfaces previously treated with a water-repellent stain (e.g., wood siding, decks, or log homes), provided the water-repellency is broken down by pressure washing prior to treatment. An infested wood floor can likewise be treated with borates, but would first need to be sanded to remove the finish.

The two borate formulations registered for residual surface treatment of wood are Bora-Care® and Tim-bor®. Both formulations are virtually nontoxic, odorless, and remain effective for as long as 40 years. It is recommended that these products be applied by professional pest control operators. Homeowners, insisting on performing the application themselves, can obtain Bora-Care® through chemical distributors and lumber companies.

The two most recent borate formulations registered with the EPA for permanent treatment against wood-boring insects are SHELL-GUARD® and GUARDIAN®. One advantage that these products have is the use of essentially nontoxic propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol carriers. These carriers are not only very safe to users, but are very effective penetrating carriers.

GUARDIAN® is a highly concentrated paste that is applied as a bead from a caulking tube. GUARDIAN® can also be applied by direct injection into galleries or into drilled holes where insect populations are detected.

SHELL-GUARD® is a liquid formulated for a topical application using a sprayer or brush. Both products provide effective remedial and preventative treatment against most wood destroying organisms.

Both of these products are labeled for home use and can be easily and safely applied by the homeowner. (For further information on either SHELL-GUARD® or GUARDIAN®, contact PERMA-CHINK Systems at (800)548-1231 or (800)548-3554.

One final point to remember when applying borates or other liquid surface treatments is that the application will only control infestations which are accessible, i.e., wood that is exposed and can be reached for treatment. Infestations which have spread into walls or between floors are candidates for more drastic measures such as fumigation.

FUMIGATION

Fumigation is an expensive means of ridding a structure of powderpost beetles and should be considered a last resort. However, in the case of severe, widespread infestations, it may be the only option. Instances warranting structural fumigations are when infestations have spread into walls, between floors, and other areas where access or wood removal is impractical. The best way to avoid such problems is through early detection and implementation of one or more of the corrective actions mentioned above. Fumigation of a home will typically run upwards of $3,000 or more. After fumigating, there is no residual chemical left to prevent subsequent infestations.

Fumigation of infested furniture, antiques, and other manufactured articles can be done at a substantially lower cost by placing the items under tarps, in trailers, or in vaults that maintain gas concentrations at high levels. This service is offered by some pest control companies. Only the licensed, trained pest control operator or applicator can apply fumigants such as methyl bromide or sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

HYG-2083-97

William F. Lyon

 Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. and Director, OSU Extension.

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These guys were top notch and I would recommend them to anyone in the surrounding area. I called 6 or so places to see if they could come same day for spider removal, and everyone said they were booked solid until next week. I had guests staying with me that day, so i wanted to avoid having dozens of spiders roaming around my apartment. Sam told me he'd try to squeeze me in he just had to double check. He called me back 5 minutes later and said I could expect someone in just an hour or so. They were professional, reliable and very honest.
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Very kind service and really helpful.They care about you and your pocket. Sam was really helpful and he had a really big knowledge knowing what my problem was just seeing the photos I sent him. I'm really happy with the service if I hear someone needs a pest control service I would recommend them with no doubt!
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Juan Prieto
03:45 20 Jan 18
Fantastic service with Immediate results. You won't be disappointed.He was very friendly, informative & did an awesome job today. I'll recommend Sydney's best pest control to everyone I know. Thank You ?
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Awesome service. Super friendly. Incredibly thorough. Highly recommended.
Wasif Kasim
Wasif Kasim
04:10 18 Jan 18
I have done a pest control with Sydneys Best recently. It is very worthwhile, reliable and the person who came (Mr Omar) to do the job is very friendly and did the job very well. I recommend this company to any body who want to do a good job and worth for the money you are paying.
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A knowledgable, friendly and efficient service. Chris was fantastic. It's so refreshing to get an honest appraisal rather than one that is only based on profit. We will definitely use them again.
Jodie Blampied
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23:56 19 Sep 18
Sam is one of the most helpful and supportive professionals I have ever met. He will go out of his way to assist you and ensure you receive the best advice regarding the most effective pest control methods available. I would thoroughly recommend Sydneys Best Pest Control without hesitation.
Karen Crowley
Karen Crowley
12:28 04 May 18
A company offering free advice, without pushing for business, is very refreshing. After examining photos of a pest problem I was experiencing, Sam from Sydneys Best Pest Control, phoned me to discuss the matter. His advice was to take my photos to my local hardware store to obtain the correct product to treat the problem myself. There was no pressure to use the services of his company.I was very impressed with Sam’s knowledge and professionalism. After this experience, I would certainly use the company for my annual pest control treatment.
Doreen S
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11:12 15 May 18
Had this company out last year for my problem with German cockroaches. Great service, polite and reasonable. Will be using them again.
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Wonderful services promote and reasonably priced, recommend them most definitely.
Michael Perigo
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22:55 27 Jun 18
Chris arrived on time and was very friendly and professional. We did our pest control a month ago and are still seeing dead cockroaches/insects. Good results. Jardine on the phone was nice to deal with too. Would recommend them.
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15:54 09 Nov 18
Prompt, efficient, courteous. I have used them in 2017 and rebooked them for 2018/2019. Highly recommend.
Herr Calypsojoe
Herr Calypsojoe
00:56 27 Nov 18
Tech was on time and did a great job. He explained what he was doing and simply got about doing the application. Would highly recommend company to anyone in he area
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David Heck
02:57 17 Dec 18
Sydney's Best Pest Control provides an exemplary and reliable service. The reason we are repeat customers is because of the high level of customer service and professionalism demonstrated. We have called on them on two occasions and each time, the work has been completed in a professional, informative, and efficient manner. Their knowledgeable technician Chris has helped implement effective solutions to our pest control issues on the ground and we appreciate the efforts made to ensure great service!
Bana AlQabbani
Bana AlQabbani
00:32 20 Dec 18
I'm so glad to have found SBPC after struggling to find a decent pest control company who is NOT all about money or take advantage of their customers. This is the best company by far and I'd dare say it's up there in the industry with other 25-30+ odd years businesses that I have encountered. You got my business and keep doing what you do best!
Quality value
Quality value
01:11 19 Feb 19
These guys live up to their name and are the best pest company I have ever had the pleasure of dealing with! I can't thank them enough! Absolutely fantastic service from the minute I sent them a query online, right through to the on-site completion of the job. They are true experts of their field. The results speak for themselves! It's been over two weeks and our home is completely pest free! A++ Highly recommended!
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19:48 02 Mar 19
I’m so happy with Sydney’s Best Pest Control. They really are the best. I suspected I had a mouse in the house and Alex came out at 8am the next morning to take care of the situation. He was very friendly and thourugh and the mouse is definitely gone! Thank you so much.
Stephanie Hal
Stephanie Hal
08:17 31 Jul 19
Thank you for the assistance from the office with an emergency we had today. Sydneys best pest control offered me advice on how on can eliminate make pest issue quickly by myself.Which saved me money.Thank you. Iam sure to use you in the future
Najwa Kahwaji
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05:27 14 Aug 19
I was happy with the service provided by Sydney's Best Pest Control. Easy to make a booking and the technician was on time, friendly, informative and did his job efficiently. I did find that they called and emailed more times than I would have liked, and although they offer warranty, I felt they were quite reluctant and offended when I asked for the technician to come back after I was concerned with still seeing cockroaches running around 6-8 weeks later. I still highly recommend the company, as their product is great and they were professional. I would book them again if we move.
Claire Lozano
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10:53 21 Aug 19
Alex is amazing... was very kind, helpful and thorough. He got the job done professionally and even left a towel to wipe his shoe marks at the front entrance. Will definitely come back for future services.
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05:46 16 Sep 19
Amazing and very thorough job! The technicians were very friendly, helpful and knowledgeable. The team helped me to identify exactly what pest control I needed for my property and did a fantastic job. Highly reccomended
Nita Paterson
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23:10 03 Oct 19
Amazing job ! I was trying to get rid of cockroaches for a long time! I think I tried all the products and methods on the planet to kill them. They always came back! I was dealing with the German one, a nightmare! My last chance was to call a professional and I contacted Sydney Pest Control ... I still can't believe it .. they are gone ! They have done a fantastic job.. they are definitely gone! This is worth every cents!Highly recommend their service. Just do it now instead of losing your time and money with other products/ service!
Sandrine Zawadzki
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00:08 16 Oct 19
A good adjective for the noun...Indeed, Sydney's best pest-control service!Thumbs up to Uncle Sam and his team!
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Haytham Wafa
05:12 16 Oct 19
Today 19th November, 2019 Mohammed and Harry serviced our home. They were both efficient, pleasant, it was enjoyable to have such nice workers here. I recommend them. Helen
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23:44 18 Nov 19

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